Dog Breeds by Type, Traits And Characteristics: In the case of domestic dogs, a breed is considered such when it has been defined as a breed. This is usually done by a breed association, but can also be done by a breeder or by individuals.
The definition of the term breed is rarely based on biological characteristics, most known dog breeds are described by associations and clubs.
There are no standards or uniform scientific bases for the designation. W. Herre also believes that a race “[is] nothing uniform, but [it] comprises a group of different individuals of the same species who only have a few things in common that can only be described using statistical methods.” He defines a race as follows:
“Races are sexually isolated, common subunits of a species that differ in a number of traits and genetic units. They are collective units whose peculiarities can only be reproduced using statistical methods. A wide field is left for subjective discretion in the delimitation and selection of characteristics.”
Dog breeds can be classified into different types. So there are the groups of herd dogs, hunting dogs, farm dogs, guard dogs, sled dogs, dogs of the archetypal type, company, and companion dogs, divided according to their purpose. Groups can also overlap or a race can combine several group characteristics.
The breed name often reveals a group affiliation, e.g. B. that a “hound” belongs to the hounds and hounds. However, some breed names also indicate a different group affiliation than the actual assignment. The large Russian terrier has nothing in common with the small terriers but was bred specifically as a guard dog breed. The English name of the Epagneul Breton is Brittany Spaniel, although this breed belongs to the pointing dogs. There are many such examples.
Furthermore, there are very individual dog breeds with special characteristics that can clearly stand out from their group affiliation. In addition, it must be taken into account that the racial image of many breeds has sometimes changed significantly over the course of time.
A classification can only ever be a rough guideline.
Livestock guardian dogs are large-framed dogs with a rather moderate temperament. They don’t like to bark, have a low level of excitement, and are extremely independent. Their physical sensitivity is rather low. They live closely with the herd and protect them from attacks by wolves, bears, or thieves. For this task, cooperation with humans as with a herding or herding dog is not necessary, they fulfill their protective function due to their pronounced territorial behavior. When a possible danger approaches, they stand out with good socialization, suitable housing conditions, and, depending on the breed, clearly graded threatening behavior. So shows z. For example, the Sarplaninac has a higher reactivity than the Owczarek Podhalanski in territorial defense. The social openness of livestock guardian dogs is rather low. However, they are particularly easy to socialize with potentially huntable animals such as sheep.
In earlier times, some livestock guard dogs were also used to hunt large game. This legacy can still be seen today, for example, in Akbash as a passion for hunting. However, the hunting behavior of the majority of livestock guardian dogs is very poorly developed.
In other breeds, the transitions to the herding dog are fluent with the presence of the appropriate hunting behavior. Because with herd movements it is quite practical to have a dog, which is also useful when driving the herd when moving to a new pasture. Examples of this are e.g. B. the Bergamasque shepherd dog (Cane da pastore Bergamasco) or the Croatian shepherd dog (Hrvatski Ovcar). In such dog types, one finds both the pronounced territorial behavior of the livestock guard dog type and a herding disposition.
Another commonly found solution is to use livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs alongside one another, such as the Tibetan Mastiff and Tibetan Terrier.
Some livestock guarding dogs, such as the Fila Brasileiro or the Kuvasz, are often used to guard property due to their strong territorial defense disposition.
Cattle dogs are specialized in taking large animals, especially cattle, to and from pasture or to market or slaughter. They work behind and to the sides of the herd, sometimes moving between the animals. Packing into the shackles of the animals can increase the pressure during the drive.
Turning cattle are persuaded to turn back by a short nose grab if the dog’s approach is not sufficient.
The predominant hunting behavior of this type of herd dog is rushing and grabbing into the chains.
These dogs include large dogs that were also responsible for protecting the herd on the drive to the market, such as the Bouvier des Flandres, the Rottweiler, and the Giant Schnauzer. However, today this no longer corresponds to the breeding goal, since this type was hardly used with increasing industrialization.
Today, many of these ancient cattle dog breeds have found their place as protection or companion dogs.
On the other hand, there are purely specialized cattle dogs that tend to be small and agile, such as the Australian Cattle Dog. He works on large herds of cattle and is accordingly active. Although Appenzeller and Entlebuch mountain dogs are rather small, active cattle dogs, they also fulfill a protective function.
Depending on the purpose, the activity of the cattle dogs varies from average to strong. The same applies to the state of excitement and the willingness to bark. Your independence and your social openness is average. Their physical sensitivity is rather low. They are reactive dogs that work well with humans.
It is important to note above all the predisposition to rush and, in the case of the corresponding breeds, how to deal with the tendency towards territorial defense. Especially with the smaller cattle dog breeds, the “heel bite” can be particularly pronounced. When raising puppies, it is important to note that heel biting will be rewarded by the sufferer walking on.
Herding dogs work on many sides of the herd, but not in the middle, with certain exceptions. They are used to hold and herd sheep together, especially sheep, but also any other herdable animals. In sparsely populated areas they have to drive the herd from one pasture to another and keep it together. There are many breeds that bark to emphasize their work. What the herding dogs have in common is a pronounced prey behavior with dominating sequences of hunting behavior depending on the area of application and requirements.
In areas with arable farming and many settlements, a type of hats or
German shepherd dog, who has to direct the flocks of sheep past fields and to keep them on certain pasture sections or paths. At bends, he has to ensure that the herd runs out neatly at a corner.
To do this, he takes certain standing places on command or runs over a certain limit (“run furrow”). If an animal nevertheless dares to deviate from the limits to be observed, it has to stop it with the help of the “handle”. This “grip” means grabbing the animal in question over the back without injuring it. With this type of shepherd dog, it is also desirable to defend the shepherd in case of danger. The old German herding dogs, for example, belong to this type.
Another specialization can be found in the paddock working dogs. The Border Collie is one of them. They move the animals from a greater distance with their eyes (“eye”), which corresponds to a special form of fixation and stalking. They also work within the herd to separate individuals or groups from the rest of the herd.
The tendency towards territorial defense is low in paddock dogs.
The Border Collie is an extreme specialist who tends to herd and dig into everything. His motivation to work is extremely strong and requires adequate workload. Furthermore, he is particularly endangered to show herding behavior not only towards a hunted prey, but also towards conspecifics, people and road users, such as cars. Basically, herding dogs are very active and reactive dogs. Dogs with a high level of excitement can often be found among the herding dog breeds, as well as dogs with high physical sensitivity. Your social openness is average. They work closely with humans, but must also demonstrate a certain degree of independence, for example to prevent animals from escaping. Their willingness to bark varies from breed to breed. In the case of the Border Collie, for example, it is low. In herding dog breeds, which also drive the herd by barking and also act as guards, such as the Puli, it is clearly pronounced. The Nordic herding dogs, which all also serve as guard dogs, are considered to be particularly fond of barking.
Hounds typically include breeds that specialize in certain types of hunting, such as the Hound, Scenthound, Pointer, Scout, Retriever, certain Terrier, and some Waterhounds.
But of course, greyhounds are also highly specialized hunters.
The dogs of the archetypal type used for hunting occupy a special position and are also given to the Nordic hunting dogs. Ultimately, the dogs of the original type also have an important function as hunting helpers.
Bracken are characterized by the fact that they follow a wild track or drove (track: smell; track: footprints) by barking. They are used for any furred game (as opposed to feathered game). There are long-legged (e.g. Swiss Hounds) and short-legged Hounds (Badger Hounds or Downy Hounds, e.g. the Swiss Downy Hounds). The long-legged ones are used for fast hunting, especially on larger or fast animals. The short-legged ones have an advantage when pursuing smaller wild animals such as the fox under bushes or even into the burrow.
Depending on the breed, Hounds are used for hunting either in packs (e.g. Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen) or individually (e.g. German Hound).
“Bracking” includes the nature of game to return to its original location. The dog searches and pursues a trail, scaring off the corresponding game, which returns to its location, where the hunter waits, first with a hound, later with a gun. Large hunting grounds are necessary for bracking, so that this type of hunting can hardly be carried out in heavily industrialized countries or is very rare.
Furthermore, many Brackenschlags were used for the so-called par force hunt. With this method of hunting, the game is hunted to death on horseback with the help of a pack of dogs.
For animal welfare reasons, this type of hunting has fallen into disrepute nowadays. Examples of this type of dog include French Hounds, Foxhounds and Beagles.
The dachshund also belongs to the hounds, more precisely to the badger hounds. However, the dachshund specializes in working underground. It has been selected as a construction dog for hunting foxes, badgers and the smaller breeds of rabbits, but it also performs all other hunting tasks.
Limits are only set in terms of speed, overcoming obstacles and retrieving large game.
Scenthounds: They are specialized hounds that follow the trail without barking on a long tether (leash). They are used for post-shot work to track down shot escaped game. Recognized bloodhound breeds are the Hanoverian bloodhound, the Bavarian mountain bloodhound and the Alpine Dachsbracke.
All Hounds show a pronounced hunting behavior over all sequences with extreme expression of the search. They work with a “deep nose” and follow a track they have picked up independently and persistently over long distances and long periods of time. The barking is largely confined to the context of hunting when they are on a trail or track. Especially among the pack dog breeds, however, there are also more frequently dogs that tend to make a wide variety of vocalizations when excited. They are very active dogs with average to low reactivity depending on the breed and usually rather average excitability. They are usually of average physical sensitivity. Bracken are usually characterized by a special social openness. Their territorial behavior is not very pronounced.
A tendency towards territorial defense is not to be found.
Pointing dogs are used for hunting “under the gun”, i. H. they work closely with the hunter. They should systematically search fields for feathered game that is present, whereby this form of hunting requires the search to be carried out with a “high” nose. If they have found game, they indicate it to the hunter by standing still, pointing. The hunter then comes along to finally shoot the flying game. After the shot, the dog fetches the shot prey. The particularly pronounced prey behaviors of this type of dog are searching, locating, fixing and additionally packing and carrying the prey. The typical example of a pointing dog is the pointer.
However, most pointing dog breeds are also used for other types of hunting, so that they are also used for rummaging, can do simple welding work and, depending on the breed, have a more or less pronounced “predator sharpness”, i. H. that they also kill a fox or other predators if necessary. Such all-round talents are represented, for example, by the German pointers. They have a pronounced hunting behavior in all sequences.
Pointing dogs have average independence and are very socially open to people. Their physical sensitivity is rather low, their reactivity average. They are very active dogs. Many pointer breeds have dogs with a high level of excitement, which is usually accompanied by a strong tendency to howl and bark. Otherwise there is a barking joy in some breeds on the trail, track or when rushing. Apart from the exceptions of the Weimaraner and the Bohemian predatory species, which have a strong tendency towards territorial defence, it is rather low in the other pointing dogs.
When rummaging, the dog also works closely with the hunter “under the gun”. In contrast to the pointing dogs, it searches with a deep nose at a short distance from the hunter.
It is used in forests and dense bushes. On one track the dogs hunt loudly.
When they have found the game, they also indicate it by pausing to lie down. Once the hunter has shot the game, the dog fetches it. Spaniels are typical scavenger dogs.
The dogs show a strong expression in the hunting sequences of searching, fixing, grabbing, and carrying the prey. They are sociable and active dogs with average reactivity and excitement. Their independence is average, their physical sensitivity rather low.
They are often barking and usually show little tendency to territorial defense. However, in connection with prey, many representatives tend to defend resources.
Retrievers were primarily bred to hunt water fowl. Retrievers make up the majority of this group. When hunting, the dog is required to stay calm with the hunter when he is sitting on the birds and later to find and reliably bring the shot poultry to land and water. He also often works according to the instructions of the hunter. A retriever’s work involves searching, locating, packing and transporting prey. Retriever dogs are socially very open-minded dogs. Their physical sensitivity is rather low, as is their willingness to bark. You have an average level of independence. They are active dogs with average reactivity and actually rather low levels of excitement. But also high levels of excitement are not uncommon, especially in brown Labradors. Very active dogs with high reactivity can be found in performance breeds for field trials.
With the exception of the Chesapeake Bay Retriever and the Curly-Coated Retriever, the tendency towards territorial defense of retrievers is low. However, there can occasionally be a resource-defense bias in relation to loot.
Water dogs have in common the commitment to work in the water. The use of many water dogs coincides with that of retrievers. Dogs from both groups show a great willingness to retrieve and a strong preference for the water, coupled with great endurance. Their other properties vary quite a bit depending on their origin. They were or are used for hunting waterfowl and/or as fishermen’s helpers. Most representatives of the water dogs come from the search dogs, such as the barbet. But there are also exceptions, e.g. B. the Perro de Agua, which goes back to herding dogs.
Most terriers have been the “little man’s” hunting dog, who also took action against rats and mice in the yard at home. He was also taken along to herd the cattle and served as a guard on the farm. Many terriers have been selected for hunting underground, where they have to drive out or catch the fox or badger. It is desirable that the dog barks, because then you can locate the whereabouts of the dog. Tireless dogs that grab and kill quickly are needed to fight mice and rats. You must have persistent hunting behavior. Except for fixation and stalking, all prey behavior sequences are strong.
Terriers are very active dogs with high reactivity. Dogs with a high level of excitement can often be found. Their physical sensitivity is rather low. They show a high level of independence and often a low level of social openness. Many terriers have a willingness to bark. Their tendency towards territorial defense is mostly average.
A special position is held by terriers, which were also kept in packs and used alongside scent hounds for par force hunting (see above). Because a pronounced social openness was important for keeping in the pack, which distinguishes them from many terrier breeds.
Nordic hunting dogs
The Nordic hunting dogs are adjusted to the vastness of the Nordic countries. You have to be persistent in searching for tracks and, once found, a track or trail just as persistent. They either drive the game towards the hunter or they catch it.
If they caught game, they keep barking so that the hunter can find the dog with the game. Nowadays, however, people also like to use a transmitter so that the path or whereabouts of the dog can be easily tracked. They are therefore dogs that show a high degree of independence and have a particularly well-developed hunting behavior. They are very active. Many dogs love to bark. Their social openness, territorial behavior, level of excitement and reactivity are average. Their physical sensitivity is average to low. An example of overlapping with sled and herding dogs is the Lajki.
Greyhounds were bred for sight hunting. They locate and chase their prey, which they then grab and shake. They therefore have a special willingness to rush. Their need to run is particularly pronounced, especially when it comes to real running.
Most greyhound breeds have a high level of independence and are often less socially open. Depending on the breed, their territorial behavior is average to clearly pronounced (e.g. Azawakh). Especially in smaller breeds, such as the Whippet, there is a higher social openness, less independence and hardly any territorial behavior. Greyhounds do not like to bark. In terms of excitability and reactivity, they are average. Their physical sensitivity varies between breeds and dogs.
Primitive type dogs used for hunting
The group of archetypal dogs used for hunting are the Podencos and Podengos, the Pharaoh Hound and the Cirneco del Etna. They form a special form and are also referred to as Mediterranean greyhounds or southern Hounds, since their hunting style forms an intermediate piece between Hounds and greyhounds.
They search just as persistently and independently as the Bracken and take into account their visual similarity to the greyhounds by also chasing and catching the game they find with their nose. Many then carry the prey and can be suitable for fetching. They are extremely mobile. Your physical sensitivity is average. Their level of arousal is also usually average and they have good reactivity. They are not prone to barking and have little tendency to defend territory. Many are social dogs.
Original type dogs
Dogs of the archetypal type are characterized by the lack of a special specialization. Hunting relied on their predatory skills and merely had to be on the prey before the hound ate them. A bell was attached to the Basenji, for example, in order to be able to locate it better and also to scare the game with the noise.
In the case of the dogs of the original type, there are mostly breeds with great independence. They are socially outgoing, but are not selected for close cooperation with humans. Their physical sensitivity, activity, reactivity and level of arousal are average. The willingness to bark of the breeds of this group is very different, as well as the territorial behavior.
Sled dogs are characterized by a great willingness to run. They have a distinctive hunting behavior and are very independent. Their territorial behavior, their reactivity and their level of excitation are average. Their barking is low or many representatives of this group do not bark like other dogs, but have a variety of other vocalizations. Their physical sensitivity is rather low. They tend to be socially outgoing, especially with humans. A clear demarcation among the Nordic dog groups is not easy. So e.g. For example, the husky used to be used for hunting and herding.
Farm dogs were required to stay on the farm and not poach and report anything unusual about barking.
Typical farm dogs are the European Spitz. They have little hunting behavior, are very willing to bark and are highly reactive. They are average active. Their territorial behavior is distinct, with the tendency towards territorial defense varying greatly. Your independence, physical sensitivity and social openness are average. Your level of arousal varies from average to strong.
But other breeds, such as the German Pinscher, are farm dogs, but like the terrier, they also had the task of specifically fighting mice and rats. This requirement is accompanied by a more pronounced hunting behavior.
Other breeds kept as farm dogs are, as mentioned above, some herd guard dogs or the Hovawart. These dogs have a strong tendency towards territorial defense.
Protection dogs selected through performance breeding must prove their abilities in protection dog tests in order to be approved for breeding. There is therefore a special selection of dogs, which can often differ greatly from dogs of other lines of the same breed. Above all, German shepherds and Malinois are particularly popular for protection work.
The dog is required to “resist” in threatening situations and also to follow a fugitive on command and stop or grab him. Most of the recognized protection dog breeds descended from herding and cattle dogs. They show a strong expression of the prey sequences of locating, fixing, rushing, grabbing, and shaking. In general, they are very active dogs with high reactivity. Often there are also representatives with a high level of excitement among them. They are happy to bark. Their social openness is often low, their physical sensitivity is average to low. The tendency towards territorial defense is strong in most protection dogs.
Companion and companion dogs
The breeds commonly referred to as lap dogs are mainly assigned to the group of companion dogs. But dogs like the Kromfohrländer, which was created specifically as a companion dog, and the “unemployed” water dog, the poodle, also belong to this group.
Furthermore, nowadays many breeds or certain lines of breeds have found their place as families and companion dogs, regardless of their actual group affiliation.
Rough and smooth collies, for example, are largely no longer bred and used as herding dogs. Many Molossers and large mountain dogs have also been kept and bred as companion dogs for a long time. Last but not least, there are always efforts to breed new companion dog breeds, which has resulted in dogs like the Elo, for example. The breed characteristics of modern companion dogs vary according to their original use and other selection criteria chosen consciously or unconsciously.
Many small dogs, such as Bichons, have a very long tradition as lap dog breeds. Hundreds of years ago they kept the fine ladies company and also liked to catch their fleas and lice. They are dogs with a special social openness to humans. You are average to little independent. Their hunting behavior is usually low. Dogs with a high level of physical sensitivity are often found. Their reactivity, level of excitement, willingness to bark and activity are average. They tend to show no tendency towards territorial defence.
All dog breeds worldwide (known and unknown dog breeds)
It is estimated that over 800 breeds exist worldwide. However, the geneticist W. Schleger is of the opinion that one can only speak of a maximum of 100 breeds of domestic dogs – he considers the rest to be varieties. The number of individuals per breed varies from a few to thousands. The breed descriptions are maintained by different associations and clubs, which have not yet reached agreement on all points among themselves. The largest of these associations is the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), a global umbrella organization to which clubs from over 80 countries are affiliated.
If you take a closer look at the FCI breeds, you will soon notice that there are hardly any fixed rules: some breeds differ, for example, in the color of their markings (some French Hounds), others in size (such as the Pinscher). With Spitz or Poodles, it doesn’t matter how big they are or what color they are, there is only one Spitz breed and one Poodle breed. The Belgian Shepherd Dog is bred as a breed into different types that have different names, as does its brother, the Hollandse Herdershond, only these types do not have specific names. Breeds bred by breeders’ associations other than those belonging to the FCI may differ from those of the FCI but bear the same name.
Descendants from crossbreeds of different breeds and dogs without a pedigree are referred to as mixed-breed dogs, hybrids or mutts. If two breeds are deliberately crossed, one has also been talking about designer or hybrid dogs for some time now.
Offspring from crosses with other species from the dog family (Canidae) are not domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), apart from wolf crossbreeds such as Czechoslovakian wolfhound, Saarloos wolfhound and Lupo Italiano. Direct crosses, i.e. the F1 generation, differ significantly from domestic dogs, especially in their behavior, which has been proven by numerous studies (e.g. by Erik Zimen). Improper keeping of such animals poses a significant risk.
Historical development of dog breeds
While there are a large number of very different dog types, breeds only come about through breeding. Finds of peat dogs suggest early selection, as some skulls found show signs of violent death, suggesting that not the entire litter was raised, only single individuals.
During the Hallstatt period, the dog population became inconsistent, with differences in size and lower jaw width. In addition, the first tooth anomalies now appeared. In the Middle Ages there were probably only twelve dog breeds in Europe. In the fifth to ninth centuries, Germanic legal collections listed breeds, which were divided according to their use: up to seven hunting dog breeds: Leithunt, Triphunt (drifting dog), Spurihunt (tracking dog), Windhunt and Hapuhunt (hawk dog) and the hunting dogs the shepherd dog and the hovawart (yard dog).
From the 13th century, controlled hunting dog breeding was practiced so that the “purebred” dogs did not mix with the farmer’s dogs. Here the appearance of the dogs was secondary; “purebred” were those who could hunt well. Presumably inbreeding has already been practiced since good dogs were increasingly used for breeding. In the 19th century many new breeds were bred and breed standards established in order to be able to maintain a created breed. Breeding of a new breed often began with just a few dogs, for example the Appenzeller Sennenhund was bred with eleven animals, and that of the English Setter with only two animals.
The industrial revolution made the dog redundant as a worker, which resulted in competitions that were primarily aimed at the different appearances of the dogs. At the beginning of the 19th century, when there were already perfectly organized dog shows, numerous pedigree dogs were bred. As cities grew, so did the number of lap dogs and house dogs. Dog breeding as it is understood today (with stud books and so on) originated in Great Britain because the first commercial breeding of so-called “bull biters” was created there due to the great popularity of dog fighting. Later, many breeding associations emerged, which were initially limited to working dogs, but later also included local special forms such as herding dogs, sighthounds or “toy dogs”. Most dog breeds (204 breeds) come from England, followed by Central and Northern European countries (total 65%). 11% (37 breeds) of today’s breeds come from southern European countries, 8% (25 breeds) come from Eastern Europe and Russia.
Classification of dog breeds
The ancient Romans were the first to classify dogs according to their use. They distinguished between villatici (guard dogs), pastorales (shepherd dogs), and venatici (hunting dogs). The hounds were further subdivided into sagaces, which followed the trail of game, celeres, which pursued by sight, and pugnaces, which attacked and fought prey.
In 1755, Buffon made a distinction based on the shape and position of the dog’s ears. Jean Pierre Mégnin, on the other hand, based himself on the shape of the skull and distinguished four groups. The first group were the Bracchoidae, characterized by a prismatic head, lop ears, a distinct forehead, a snout of equal width at the tip and base, and long, drooping lips (eg, bracken, retrievers, spaniels). The second group (Lupoidae) was characterized by a horizontally pyramidal head, erect or hanging ears, a long, narrow muzzle and narrow lips (e.g. terriers, pinschers, spitz, shepherds). The third group (Graioidae) had a long, conical head, a weak forehead, backward or pricked ears, narrow lips, and a slender body (e.g., greyhounds). The last group (Molossoidae) has a round or square head, a clear forehead, a short snout, small ears, long lips and a massive body (eg Great Danes).
Modern system according to the FCI system
Modern domestic dog classification uses breed standards that describe the appearance and behavior of dogs of this breed. The standard describes the ideal dog of this breed and can also be understood as a breeding goal. The affiliation of individual dogs to the breeds is documented via pedigrees and studbooks.
A cynological classification of dog breeds is maintained by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), among others, which currently recognizes over 340 breeds, including so-called provisionally accepted breeds:
The FCI system divides the dog breeds into ten groups, which in turn are divided into sections:
Group classification of dog breeds according to FCI:
1: Herding dogs and cattle dogs (excluding Swiss Mountain Dogs)
Section 1 : Shepherd Dogs
Section 2 : Herding dogs (excluding Swiss Mountain Dogs)
2: Pinscher and Schnauzer – Molossoids – Swiss Mountain Dogs and other breeds
Section 1 : Pinscher and Schnauzer
Section 2 : Molossoids
Section 3 : Swiss Mountain Dogs
Section 4 : Other races
Section 1 : Long Legged Terriers
Section 2 : Short Legged Terriers
Section 3 : Bull Terriers
Section 4: Miniature Terriers
Section 1 : Dachshund
5: Spitz and archetypal dogs
Section 1 : Nordic sled dogs
Section 2 : Nordic Hounds
Section 3 : Nordic guard and herding dogs
Section 4 : European lace
Section 5: Asian Spitz and related breeds
Section 6 : Archetype
Section 7 : Archetype – Dogs for hunting use
Section 8 : Archetype hounds with a ridge on the back
Section 1 : Hounds
Section 2 : Bloodhounds
Section 3 : Related Breeds
7: pointing dogs
Section 1 : Continental Pointers
Section 2 : British and Irish Pointers
8: retrievers – scavenger dogs – water dogs
Section 1 : Retrievers
Section 2 : Search dogs
Section 3 : Water Dogs
9: Companion and companion dogs
Section 1 : Bichons and related breeds
Section 2 : Poodle
Section 3 : Small Belgian Dog Breeds
Section 4 : Hairless dogs
Section 5 : Tibetan Dog Breeds
Section 6 : Chihuahue ño
Section 7 : English company spaniels
Section 8 : Japanese Spaniels and Pekingese
Section 9: Continental Toy Spaniel
Section 10: Kromfohrländer
Section 11 : Small mastiff-like dogs
Section 1 : Long-haired or feathered greyhounds
Section 2 : Wire-Coated Sighthounds
Section 3 : Short-haired greyhounds
Breed descriptions such as “ideal family dog” or “very devoted to its owner” give little information about the extent to which one breed differs from another. Because such descriptions are largely dependent on the socialization and handling of the dog. Also, some descriptions don’t sound like what a prospective first-time dog owner might imagine. As a rule, every owner likes the idea of a dog taking care of them at home. However, behind the phrase “very alert” is often found a great willingness to bark, which can be difficult to control. With regard to the breeding history of the breed, it should be borne in mind that traits that have proven to be particularly useful in the tundra, for example, can become a serious problem in today’s city living conditions. A lot can be influenced through training, but you cannot make a Newfoundland out of a terrier.
The original and more recent history and thus the intended use of a breed provide important information as a first approach as to which basic characteristics are more likely to be expected.
However, there are no guarantees for certain behavior patterns. Since behavior typical of the breed, such as enthusiasm for hunting or a willingness to bark, cannot simply be eliminated through training, a dog should be chosen with care and its disposition should be taken into account in training. Appropriately combined, the most diverse people and dog types can live happily together. However, problem-free coexistence is always based on careful socialization, species-appropriate husbandry, and understanding handling.