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Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

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Origin and breed history

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the descendant of the well-known society spaniels from the Middle Ages. These little lap dogs have been a favorite of artists to be portrayed in oil paintings alongside their mostly aristocratic owners. One of the first oil paintings depicting one of these spaniels dates from 1635 and was painted by Anthonis van Dyck. The dogs were then named after the reigning King Charles. At court, a was purely for the entertainment of the ladies and children and served as a bed warmer and status symbol for the nobility. Unfortunately, the breeding of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was already being pushed in a very unhealthy direction at that time. The little Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was supposed to look more and more like a toddler, which is why the dog’s snout was bred shorter and the eyes were supposed to look bigger. In general, the dog’s head became rounder and rounder.

Due to overbreeding and inbreeding, which has been practiced for generations, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is unfortunately a very overbred and often diseased breed of dog. As a companion dog and loyal companion of the nobility, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was able to win over several kings and queens. For example, Elisabeth I and Maria Start had small spaniels as pets. King Edward VII personally prevented the planned name change from the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel to the Toy Spaniel in 1900. Due to the great change in breeding, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel quickly deviated from the image of the old small spaniels in the paintings and attempts were made to make the breed look more original again. In the 1920s, a sum was promised for back-breeding.

The first club for the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was founded in England in 1928, the club called itself the “Club for the Promotion of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel”. Through the work of the club, the breed was officially recognized as a separate breed in 1945. Since then, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has celebrated its success all over the world, it is considered a particularly beautiful and lovable dog.

Nature & Temperament of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

As a pure company and companion dog, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has a particularly affectionate and friendly character. He is very people-related and always seeks the closeness of his owner and his family. He is the ideal dog for novice dogs and older people and is very well suited to being kept in the city. The dog breed is very good at recognizing the current mood of its owner and can be a good soul comforter. In terms of keeping, he is quite undemanding, but he does not like being separated from his owner for a long time. He has no aggression and is not afraid.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a calm and outgoing dog that likes to play, but does not need constant activity. In addition, he needs a lot of attention from his owner and must be brought up with a loving hand. The fur nose is not only friendly to people, but also to dogs and other animals. With good treatment, the bond between the dog and the human is very strong and the small Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is very obedient. Due to its playful nature, it is a good partner for children, but it can only be used for a few dog sports.

How long can a Cavalier King Charles stay alone?

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is very people-oriented and always wants to be close to its people. He doesn’t like to be left alone and being alone should be trained very early on. If the exercise is built up properly, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel can be left alone for a few hours. However, it should not be everyday that the dog stays alone for several hours every day.

The appearance of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel’s appearance is distinctive among companion dogs. The little dog has a particularly beautiful and shiny coat and a round head reminiscent of a child’s scheme. The particularly large and dark eyes should have a bright look. His ancestors, the spaniels, are still recognizable.

The silky coat should be of medium length and slightly wavy. The fur is a little longer on the long floppy ears, as is the round paws. The snout of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is quite short and rather round, but it can still breathe freely. When it comes to colors, the breed standard for the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has clear ideas. There are four colors in the breed standard, black with tan markings on the paws and head area, red, red spots on a white background, and tricolor. The individual colors usually have English names in the technical description, but describe the same color pattern.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small dog that stands 30 to 33 cm high at the withers and should weigh between 5 and 8 kg. Due to the silky coat, the dog sometimes looks a bit fatter.

Upbringing and keeping of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel – this is important to note

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a calm and gentle companion that is easy to train. He can be trained with positive reinforcement and a gentle hand. With patience and a lot of sensitivity, the little spaniel quickly learns the basic commands and becomes a safe dog for everyday life. Since he has no aggression, he gets along well with other dogs and other animals. Despite this, he should be socialized early on so that he always stays safe and calm in hectic or spontaneous situations. When training, it is important to practice staying alone, because the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel does not like being without his family and needs a lot of attention.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a very good dog for beginners. He can get used to various family situations and is very undemanding in keeping. Nevertheless, he needs his regular walks and sufficient attention from his owners. In addition to basic training, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is happy about games and experiences together, but the small dog is only suitable to a limited extent for dog sports. Since many of these dogs suffer from hereditary diseases, a health check should be carried out at the veterinarian in advance. When the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is fit, trickdogging and Hopers are great dog sports for the small friendly dog.


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The Havanese is a small companion dog native to the western Mediterranean Basin and Cuba. The bright little dog is a very popular companion and can be found in almost every country in the world. The small dog with the beautiful silky coat can be found in the FCI under the FCI Group 9 Companion and Companion Dogs, Section 1 Bichons and related breeds without a working test with the standard number 250. He is a pure company and companion dog and is suitable as a bright family dog with character and temperament.

Origin and breed history

Internationally, the Havanese bears the name Bichon Havanaise, which also shows the close relationship to the Bichons, which are particularly widespread in Europe. The ancestors of these dogs are also believed to be the ancestors of the Maltese and the Bichon Frisé. The exact origin of the Havanese can only be speculated, but canid researchers assume that the small dogs come from Europe and were brought to far-flung countries with the Spanish colonizers of the time. Mainly to South America and Cuba. There the small dogs were crossed with the local dogs and a very robust and at the same time beautiful and well-balanced companion dog breed was created.

Breeding of the new breed took place mainly in the capital (Havana) of Cuba, hence the name Havanese. There, the rich colonial rulers in particular enjoyed the small dogs. The dogs were brought to the USA by ship and found many lovers there as well. With the Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro, enthusiasm for the beautiful dogs in Cuba decreased significantly. The population saw the small service dogs as a status symbol and a remnant of the previously ruling class.

All of the old Havanese bloodlines are now extinct in Cuba. But the animals that were brought to the United States were able to save the breed from extinction. The Havanese remained largely unchanged and, with their friendly character, quickly found fans all over the world.

Nature and Temperament of Havanese

The nature of the long-haired Havanese is uncomplicated and friendly. The small dogs with the beautiful fur were primarily bred as pure company and companion dogs and thus meet all human requirements for a dog that can run with you in everyday life without any problems and gets along in a family. He is a very smart dog who loves to learn tricks and train with his owner. In addition, he is also lively and very playful with his people, while he is rather calm and neutral with strangers.

The Havanese gets along very well with children and likes to play with them without being reckless. Since he has no aggression and has no protective instinct, he can be kept very well as a second dog.

He manages to attract the attention of his people with ease and is a little charmer who likes to be in the midst of his people. If he is ignored, the Havanese pushes between his people and demands his occupation. He can bark, but is not a small barker. He has good self-confidence and, despite his small size, is not afraid of large dogs or strange situations. That is why it is also important to offer the small dog a regulated everyday life and rules that he can use as a guide. Otherwise, the little Havanese will quickly try to take control of the house.

With good socialization and training, however, he is an absolutely friendly dog that is also suitable for beginners and usually does not cause any problems. Even if unwanted behavior creeps in, it can be easily trained and the small dog can be corrected very easily by its owner.

The appearance of the Havanese

The Havanese is a small and rather compact dog with short legs and a quick and agile gait. It reaches a shoulder height of a maximum of 28 cm and there are no major differences between the sexes of the dogs. The small, agile dog should weigh a maximum of 6 kilos. Because he is very agile and likes to romp, obesity is rarely a problem with this breed.

A special feature of the Havanese is its beautiful coat. This is very long and smooth in most dogs of this breed, and can also have slight waves. According to the breed standard, the coat can be up to 18 cm long, but the small dog has hardly any undercoat, which is why it can happen that it freezes in winter despite the long top coat.

Multiple colors are allowed as coat colors, unlike their close relatives, the bichons, not just white. The Havanese comes in different shades of brown, grey, beige and even piebald. The coat should be soft and shiny and cover the body tightly. If it is rough or there are bald spots, there is often a health problem.

Upbringing and husbandry of the Havanese – This is important to note

The Havanese is a smart dog that enjoys working with its owner and is therefore easy to train. It’s considered beginner-friendly, although it can certainly demand your attention. He has a high will-to-please and is very easy to motivate for training. Toys or treats are the perfect reward for good cooperation, and there are also some dog sports that appeal to the Havanese. Because he’s an outgoing and active dog, he generally won’t have any problems with other dogs. Nevertheless, regular contact with conspecifics is important for his socialization and so that he can romp around enough. Its owner should consider its active nature and offer the little dog enough activity, but trick dogging and agility strengthen the bond between dog and owner.

Since the Havanese knows very well how to let his charm work on people, it is important for the owner to know this peculiarity and still pay attention to clear rules during training.

The Havanese quickly notices when his people are not serious and uses such opportunities to fool around or escape. Therefore, despite all the friendliness and cuteness of the dog, it is important to ensure that it is properly trained so that there are no accidents or other problems in everyday life with the dog. In general, the upbringing should be easy to handle, since the Havanese does not have a stubborn head and is free from any form of aggression. He will learn the basic commands very early and can then be further utilized with a dog sport.

In addition to basic obedience and suitability for everyday use, the little Havanese should definitely be trained to have their long fur properly cared for. Due to the length of the fur, the dog must be combed every day, otherwise the fur quickly becomes matted. In the hot summer, the fur may need to be trimmed back.

Despite its short legs, the Havanese is a very playful dog that needs sufficient exercise and activity. Long walks with a controlled free run are just the right thing to keep the little dog busy in everyday life. Games in the garden or joint bike rides are also good ways to keep your active little dog busy. In addition to all the training and employment, cuddling with the dog must not be neglected. The Havanese enjoys the attention and closeness of its people and can snuggle up next to its owner for hours and enjoy being stroked.

Manchester Terrier

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The British Manchester Terrier is listed by the FCI with the standard number 71 in Group 3 Terriers and Section 1 Long Legged Terriers. Manchester Terriers were originally bred for hunting.

Origin and breed history

The first historical mention of the Manchester Terrier dates back to the end of the 18th century. Back then, these dogs were known as “Black and Tan Terriers” because of their color. The Black and Tan Terrier was both a hunting dog and its job to keep people’s homes free of rats and other rodents. That is why these dogs are also called ratters.

The black and tan came in straight and wire hair. It is also a relative of the German Jagdterrier, the Pinscher and the Beauceron. Today’s Manchester Terrier, which was named after the British city of Manchester, where it was mainly bred at that time, arose from the Black and Tan of that time. Today’s breed emerged at the end of the 19th century.

Breeders who are still well-known today, such as the Hanoverian Schiever and Max Hartenstein, who came from Plauen, were already breeding the Manchester Terrier in Germany at the time. In this country, the British dog breed was considered a luxury dog at the time. The breeding of the breed declined sharply until 1970 and then experienced a revival.

In earlier breeding, the Manchester Terrier varied greatly in size. It is believed that his ancestors include Staffordshire Terriers and Whippets. At the end of the 19th century, small dogs were particularly popular, which led to the English Toy Terrier being developed from the Manchester Terrier. These very small dogs were bred to be very light in weight. The Toy Terrier also made its way to the United States, Canada and Germany. Today, the Toy Terrier is a separate breed, although it is also often referred to as a small version of the Manchester Terrier.

In Great Britain there used to be the so-called rat-killing competitions in which the Manchester Terrier was used. Spectators and dog owners could bet on the small dogs’ ability to kill rats, and for some dog owners, these contests brought in big money. After rat-killing was banned, interest in the dog breed plummeted.

The Manchester Terrier used to not have pricked ears, which is why they were often cropped. Later, breeding succeeded in influencing the shape of the ears. The exact definition of the distribution of the colors of the Manchester Terrier, which was specified by the FCI, also presented the breeders with a challenge. They were given precise guidelines as to where the breed must have brown markings.

Nature & character of the Manchester Terrier

The Manchester Terrier has a friendly personality and is very domestic. He is also friendly and patient with children. The breed’s original type was short-tempered and snappy, but selective breeding has muted its temperament in recent decades. Today, Manchester Terriers are dependable and adaptable companion dogs that do well in any habitat. Furthermore, these dogs are alert and lively. They need a lot of exercise, family contact and intellectual support.

They are quite suspicious and reserved towards strangers. The little Briton is fearless and very open-minded with his peers. The intelligent and docile dog is easy to train, although he can sometimes be a bit headstrong and likes to question his place in the pack. However, this dog is not very good at coercion. The hunting instinct can be quite pronounced.

Training & husbandry of the Manchester Terrier – this is important to note

The Manchester Terrier can be kept both in a city apartment and in the country. If the dog lives in the city, it is very important that he gets plenty of exercise. A garden in which the four-legged friend is allowed to move freely should be well fenced in, because the Manchester Terrier has a hunting instinct and could possibly go hiking on its own.

Owners of a Manchester Terrier should definitely be active and active in movement in order to be able to use this dog to its full potential. The breed requires a lot of time, so owners of this dog should not go to work full-time. Dog sport fans could be quite happy with the little Briton, because he enjoys all activities that are varied and give him exercise.

The Manchester Terrier is a docile dog that is generally easy to train. Sometimes he is stubborn, which is why we recommend that dog beginners in particular go to a dog school with him to make their first experiences. The Manchester Terrier should never be forced to be trained. However, he responds well to positive reinforcement training. When training, the hunting instinct and the territorial behavior of this dog should be taken into account.

Diet of the Manchester Terrier

Proper nutrition of a dog is important for the health of the four-legged friend. Although dogs are considered omnivores, they need a high proportion of protein in their food. Too much grain can make the dog sick. The feed requirement is based on the size, weight, age and activity level of the dog.

If you feed your dog ready-made feed, you can follow the guideline values of the feed industry. A dry food that is as natural as possible without additives is usually well suited for the Manchester Terrier. This is the simplest type of feeding. Dry food can be mixed well with wet food. Wet food is very digestible and tasty for the dog, but if given alone it can damage the teeth because it is too soft. For reasons of dental care, the dog should also be given chewing bones regularly, no matter what type of diet you choose.

Raw feeding, also known as BARF, is the healthiest type of diet for all dogs. However, the dog owner must have good know-how when it comes to the composition of the food, since the food has to be mixed by yourself. The same applies if the dog is to be fed with home-cooked food.

Good to know: Special features of the Manchester Terrier

From the now extinct Black and Tan Terrier, which is the ancestor of the Manchester Terrier, two breeds emerged that basically only differ in size: the Manchester Terrier weighing up to 10 kilos, and the much smaller Toy Terrier, which only reaches a maximum weight of 5 kilos and is listed by the FCI with the standard number 13.

The Manchester Terrier has become increasingly popular in Germany for around 40 years. Its population and the number of registered puppies are constantly increasing. The Manchester Terrier is also relatively widespread in the USA. Stars such as country singer Carrie Underwood are helping the breed become better known overseas.

When buying, it is important to ensure that the breeder can prove the health of the parents and that the price of a puppy should be at least $800. Lower prices indicate dubious breeding. The average price for a puppy of this breed is around $1,200. In rarer cases, Manchester Terriers can also be found across the internet who are already adults and are looking for a new home. The Manchester Terrier as a mix is not very common.


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Connoisseurs of this dog breed know full well that his love lasts for eternity. That’s why this bright heartthrob is so popular all over the world. We are talking about the Pomeranian, which is also often referred to as Pomeranian, Toy Spitz and Dwarf Spitz, especially in English-speaking countries.

History and origin

The direct ancestor of the Pomeranian is the (German) Spitz, whose ancestors are considered to be the oldest dog breed in Europe. While there are theories that pin the prehistoric peat dog as that ancestor, the precise origins of the spitz family remain a matter of debate. What is certain, however, is that Spitz-type dogs have been bred throughout Europe for centuries and were particularly valued and kept by the nobility because of their compact size and intelligence. Various representations of lace in works of literature, music and performing arts prove this, e.g. Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach’s Die Spitzin.

The smaller variant of the German Spitz, the Kleinspitz, came to Britain from the north-east German region of Pomerania more than 200 years ago. There they continued to be bred as small as possible, which resulted in a renaming to “Pomeranian” (in German “the Pomeranian”).

These dogs became very popular in the second half of the 18th century thanks to Queen Charlotte of England. Breeding of the Pomeranian only returned to Germany in the 1970s, and the breed standard was recognized by the FCI as early as 1957.

Essence and Temperament

The Pomeranian is basically a very sociable and happy breed of dog, which is why it can be perfectly combined with children and the family. The lively four-legged friend prefers to be close to people and is therefore considered a true family dog. His alert intellect likes to be kept busy and he loves to learn new tricks with quick success.

Still, boredom is something to avoid at all costs with this dog breed – because then he gets creative himself. Nevertheless, it shouldn’t cause any problems if a Pomeranian is left alone at home in between. If possible, you should get used to other pets as early as possible so that they can live together harmoniously. Basically, this dog breed is considered to be very social and friendly, also towards other dogs and animals. Nonetheless, an adult dog is harder to socialize with other pets than a puppy.

In general, the character of the Pomeranian is rather cheeky and self-confident, despite its cute appearance. That’s why he can sometimes get a little cocky and get into trouble with his fellow dogs – careful socialization from puppy paws on is therefore advisable. Less problematic is the training of this dog breed, which is considered obedient and uncomplicated towards people. Anyone who consistently ensures that some rules are observed and doesn’t lose their rigor at the sight of the sweet pomeranian face shouldn’t have any problems with him. Due to its low demands on the house and yard, this dog can also be kept in a small city apartment and is a loyal companion for children, adults, and seniors.


With an average height of between 18 and 24 centimeters, the Pomeranian is one of the small dog breeds. On average, the dog breed should weigh around three kilograms, otherwise, health problems can occur in dogs that are bred too small. Her body is stocky with a short, firm back. As a result, they move fluidly and are fun and springy with good thrust.

What is particularly striking about the Pomeranian is its dense, beautiful coat of fur, which stands out clearly from the body due to the lush undercoat. Especially the imposing mane and the bushy tail give these dogs a noble appearance. Like other Pomeranians, the Pomeranian also has a fox-like, pointed head with triangular erect ears. The dark brown eyes give the Pomeranian a cheeky expression due to the almond shape and the slight slanting.


On average, the Pomeranian has a life expectancy of between 12 and 16 years, making it one of the long-lived dogs. Basically, when bred responsibly, Pomeranians are very robust dogs that suffer from few health problems. They usually only develop diseases if they don’t get enough exercise and/or are given the wrong food – or are spoiled with human food too often. Because they lose their teeth very early, feeding them dry food is recommended.

Diseases typical of the breed include the risk of a luxated patella and a collapsed trachea – the collapse of the windpipe, which is evidenced by a hoarse cough. In males, the position of the testicles can be abnormal if they do not descend properly. Animals with a merle coat color can suffer from typical diseases associated with mating two merle parents, such as partial or total blindness and deafness or other eye diseases. Particular caution is required if the animals are too small (below 18 centimeters at the shoulder) or are bred too lightly.

Shih Tzu

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If you want to get a Shih Tzu, you need a lot of patience when training it. The animal has a certain stubbornness and tends to assert independence. But the clever four-legged friend has other sides that make the human heart melt for dogs. The breed portrait reveals what these are and what dog owners still need to consider.

The Shih Tzu dog breed belongs to the FCI group 9 of companion dogs. He is assigned to Section 5.

Origin and breed history

The history of the Shih Tzu breed did not begin with the introduction of the dog into the Chinese imperial palace. Much earlier, the Shih Tzu found its home in the Chinese autonomous region of Tibet. The little dog is said to have initially lived with the monks of the Tibetan monasteries. According to an old legend, the figure of the Buddha would delight in the little lion dog on his travels. The name came about because of the lion-like appearance. According to legend, however, Buddha also benefited from his animal companion dogs. Because they could turn into real lions in the event of imminent danger.

The Tibetan monks diligently promoted the breeding of the Shih Tzu breed. They were therefore also considered temple dogs whose task it was to guard the holy places. As part of this task, the animal’s sense of hearing was able to develop excellently. Even today, this is a salient feature. The Lhasa Apso, the Tibetan Terrier and the Pekingese also emerged from the breeding of the Temple Dog. The Tibetan name Lhasa Apso and the Chinese name Shih Tzu literally mean “lion dog”.

It was not until the 17th century that the little lion dogs came to the Chinese imperial court as tribute payments. There the breeding of the breed Shih Tzu was continued. So it didn’t take long for the temple dog to acquire the image of a luxury dog. In the 20th century, China also approved the export of the little darlings to the USA and Europe. While breeders in Europe and elsewhere took up the breed, breeding in China came to an abrupt end with the establishment of Communism in 1949. Because communism forbids all luxuries, the lion dogs suffered a sad fate. They were reduced to uselessness and killed. The Shih Tzu was recognized as a separate breed in Great Britain in 1929.

Nature & Temperament of the Shih Tzu

It is not surprising for the animal lover to hear that the Shih Tzu has an arrogant nature. Breeders often refer to the animal with this adjective. As a temple dog and coveted luxury animal in the world of the Chinese imperial palace, the creature has always been used to a priority role. The trained companion dog doesn’t know any different. The sudden aversion to any form of submission is sometimes more like a cat. What sounds a bit unsympathetic at first glance, the Shih Tzu immediately compensates with other character traits.

His open and friendly nature is always turned towards people. This is not least because the Shih Tzu likes to be the center of attention. The breed is capable of making the two-legged friends around it laugh. In addition to his independence, he also likes to live out his playfulness. The dog hardly knows a bad mood. Even children and toddlers can have fun with the animal. The animal doesn’t blame the little ones for childish clumsiness. The playful two-legged friend is only too happy to accept cuddles from his fans. The animal usually cannot get enough of this.

In addition to his character, which is always designed for fun and joy, his intelligent nature also stands out. This is why there should be an education that sets boundaries. If you only plan to pat the dog, you will quickly learn otherwise. The animal knows how to cleverly exploit humanization and negligence. Because independence is part of the Shih Tzu’s nature, it’s easy for them to be told nothing at all. Therefore, the educator should not focus only on excessive caresses.

Upbringing & keeping the Shih Tzu – this is important to note

When training the Shih Tzu breed, the dog owner should always use their heart and mind. The companion dog, for all its addiction to cuddles, is still an animal. The animal knows how to assert its simultaneous need for independence with the necessary portion of stubbornness. The motto “exceptions prove the rule” can have fatal effects on the Shih-Tzu. When there are exceptions, the intelligence is geared towards the pursuit of a goal that overrides all methods of education. His audacity triumphs over negligence.

The correction of misconduct of the clever four-legged friend should be done quickly and consistently. Inconsistency is what the Shih-Tzu chalks up as a success in its own right. Immediate correction leads to good leadership of the dog. Training should begin as early as puppy age. If several members live in the immediate vicinity of the dog, each member should use the same training methods and commands towards the former luxury dog.

It is also important to ensure the right balance when it comes to activities related to parenting. The Shih-Tzu is willing to learn. However, being overwhelmed quickly leads to resignation. On the other hand, under-challenging can encourage the animal’s need for independence. In this case, the Shih-Tzu gets what it needs. It is not uncommon for dog owners to feel pressured.

As the animal’s dominant behavior increases, it manifests itself in the form of frequent barking, disobeying commands, random behavior, damaging furniture, or being pushed off the couch. The dog wants to rule. In the absence of attention, the animal tries to increase its rank within the family pack.

If you are a pet owner and beginner and can be disciplined and consistent in leading your dog, you can do the same with the Shih-Tzu. With prior knowledge, even a beginner can acquire this breed of dog. Best when they are puppies. If the upbringing is successful, the animal is a very affable and playful companion for both the individual and the family.