- Breed Name: Yorkshire Terrier
- Country of origin: UK
- The time of the birth of the breed: the end of the XIX century
- Type: Terriers
- Weight: up to 3.1 kg
- Height (height at the withers): 20 – 23 cm
- Life Expectancy: 12 – 16 years
Brief Description of the Breed
This small dog can be classified as Toy Dogs (decorative breeds), but by its nature, it is really a real terrier. Active, smart, loving to play, while getting along well with cats, he will become a real joy for all seven – all this is about the Yorkshire Terrier. A distinctive feature of this breed is the most beautiful coat, even when trimmed!
Yorkshire Terriers have long become faithful companions of wealthy people and elderly women who cannot imagine their life without a doorman in the house and without actively participating in various charity events. The popularity of this dog is constantly growing, this is due, as already mentioned, to the beautiful, soft, silky hair and insanely expressive eyes of the dog.
The Yorkshire Terrier is very alert, it belongs to the group of easily trained dogs. This is an insanely curious dog. All his qualities are inherent in large breed dogs. The weight of a dog, as a rule, does not exceed 3.5 kilograms, therefore, it is often associated with pocket breeds. Despite their small size, Yorkies, like other dogs, require attention and love. He will be happy to take long walks, and if necessary, he can become an excellent watchman.
The rather cocky character of this dog is not a positive trait that would allow keeping the dog in families with children. In addition, its small size is also the reason why Yorkies should not be kept if you have small children. During games, Yorkies can overdo it and bite, including a child. In communicating with its relatives, the Yorkshire Terrier is quite calm and does not show any special disposition. Another hallmark of the glamorous doggie is the love of barking. If the Yorkie starts barking, it is sometimes difficult to stop him.
The Yorkshire Terrier is a small, elegant dog, majestic and with luxurious fur falling down both sides of the body, parting from the nose to the tip of the tail. The body is short, compact, the back is straight, the ribs are moderately prominent, the lumbar region is muscular. The forelimbs are straight, with obliquely set shoulder blades. The hindquarters appear straight from the rear and slightly bent when viewed from the side. Paws are round, claws are black. The tail is docked, of medium length, completely covered with hair. If the tail has not been docked, it is carried slightly above the line of the ridge, as straight as possible, covered with hair.
The head is small, set on a long neck, the jaw is not very long, the nose is black. The upper and lower jaw are of the same length. The teeth are straight with a dense scissor bite, which means that when closed, the incisors of the upper jaw fit tightly in front of the incisors of the lower jaw. The eyes are medium in size, dark, shiny, with an intelligent and lively expression. They are located opposite each other and cannot be bulged. The eyelid is colored dark. Ears are small, V-shaped, set high, set not wide apart, erect, covered with short, smooth hair.
Coat and Color
The coat is a distinctive feature of this small and incredibly attractive dog. The Yorkshire Terrier has a long, smooth, silky coat that falls smoothly on both sides of the body, moreover, it is completely devoid of undercoat. The hairy covering of the muzzle is also quite long and harmoniously combines with the general appearance. Adult dogs that attend shows tend to have a long coat that goes down to the paws. From the outside, it looks like a running Yorkie is riding on wheels.
Yorkshire Terrier color: steel blue, resembles a cloak that covers the body from the very back of the head to the beginning of the tail. This part cannot have yellow-gold or brown colors. On the rest of the body, the coat is colored rich gold, which rises all the way to the neck. Not a single dark or gray hair, the so-called singed color, is mixed with the red-gold color on the head. The hair has a particularly rich color at the root, slightly lighter in the middle, and lighter at the ends. Dogs are born in black-burning color and only over time the color meets the breed standards.
Taking care of the Yorkshire Terrier is easy, there is no need for any special skills, such as when shearing a Poodle or Bedlington Terrier. However, caring for a Yorkie should be systematic. The pet should be brushed regularly and bathed thoroughly every ten days with a special shampoo designed for long-haired dogs. Also, it is advisable to use balms after bathing, otherwise, the combing process will be very difficult, there will be many knots and scraps of wool knotted into a heap. If your pet does not take part in exhibitions, it is better to contact the nearest dog salon and arrange for him a more interesting, short haircut.
Life loves to present surprises: for example, poverty and an unusually difficult economic situation contributed to the emergence of one of the most luxurious breeds. The Industrial Revolution in 1860-1870 forced thousands of workers to leave the Scottish weaving mill and look for work elsewhere. The job was found in Yorkshire, England, where the textile industry was still profitable at the time. Having moved to a new place, the workers took their dogs with them, which they greatly appreciated and used to guard their homes, catch rodents, and hunt. Of course, they did not have the opportunity to keep a large-sized dog, and the Yorkie had its own, important, advantages – he worked a lot, but ate, at the same time, little.
Over time, the dogs began to be crossed with Clydesdale Terriers, dogs whose size did not exceed the size of a ferret, their coat was short and soft, and the color was black burning. Also, the ancestors of the modern York are dogs of the Paisley Terrier breed, which are also similar to Skye Terriers, they differed in that their coat was very silky and completely painted in a steel blue tint on the head and body, and on the legs it had a light golden color. It was from them that the Yorkshire Terrier inherited its beautiful coat. It is possible that there was also a Manchester Terrier, a Dandy Dinmont Terrier, a Skye Terrier. And the Yorkie, despite the changes in his appearance, still hunted pests that were introduced into cotton yarn, as well as rats in mines. He always followed his owner and was perfect for this, because he was small and could fit anywhere, even in the smallest corner. Soon hunting for rats among the British became a sport, the Yorkshire Terrier faced a difficult task: to strangle as many rats as possible within a certain period of time. In this he also turned out to be extremely useful, because the value of the winning dog increased, and after it left the competition, it brought profit to its owners, continuing its race.
The Yorkshire Terrier gained real popularity only when it first appeared at a dog show. In 1874, Frank Pierce de Feversam entered the Yorkshire Terrier into the first generic book, and this date is considered the beginning of the development of the breed. The first dog to be registered was born in 1865, by mating a mother and son, Huddersfield Ben became the first of his breed, he looked perfect, thanks to the fact that he was obtained by crossing close relatives. He was good at everything: he received prizes at exhibitions and, at the same time, showed perfect results in rat strangulation competitions. He left behind numerous and beautiful offspring, to whom all his best qualities were passed on.
The fact that the Yorkshire Terrier began to appear at shows did not escape the attention of high-ranking ladies. That is why, very soon, breeders began to breed dogs that fit the taste of potential aristocratic buyers. We tried to get every time an ever-smaller dog with, possibly, longer and more luxuriant coat. As a result of constant crossing, the long body of the Yorkie gradually acquired a square shape, and the weight decreased from 8 kg to 3 kg. In 1870, the dog began to be called the Yorkshire Terrier, and in 1898 the first representative of the breed was introduced.
Nowadays, the Yorkshire Terrier breed is known to almost everyone and every day it has more and more fans.
Yorkshire Terrier Character
The nature of Yorkshire Terriers depends on how they are raised. Some are distinguished by activity and immense energy, courage, while others, on the contrary, are quiet, calm, and docile.
When they talk about Yorkies, they immediately come to mind small tame dogs, with which noble ladies like to go out on the promenade. This little wonder – dogs adore the attention to themselves and do not like being left alone. This is why Terriers always follow their master. These dogs are excellent companions, they will make a good company for the elderly, as well as those who have a lot of free time in order to concentrate their attention on raising a pet.
The breed is so popular that many dog breeders consider it a duty to have such a wonderful animal. Yorkies, on the one hand, are very shy, and on the other, very welcoming and friendly. However, they may react differently to strangers or guests. A common character trait of all Yorkies: independence, high intelligence, determination, and tenderness.
Yorkshire Terriers are too independent. They can set their own rules, so do not follow the lead of your pet. To some extent, the Yorkies’ independence keeps pace with their courage. The fact is that these small animals can be quite bold, especially when it comes to achieving the desired goal, for example, taking possession of the owner’s favorite toy, treat, or slippers. During walks, some Yorkies will enjoy chasing squirrels, birds, or cats with great pleasure.
Yorkshire Terriers are blessed with great determination. Very often they do what they want, and they do it there, and at a time when it is convenient for them. If you want the dog to fulfill something, then your desire should be interesting first of all to the Yorkie himself. The curiosity and perseverance of this dog are so great that even with your prohibition, for example, to rummage in the trash can, the Yorkshire Terrier will definitely climb there in your absence … but of course, the pet has long been interested in what is in such a forbidden place as a garbage bin!
We can say about Yorkshire Terrier dogs that they are all monogamous in relation to their owner. Having disposed a pet to yourself, you will be rewarded with his attention and tenderness. These dogs are very affectionate and do not hide their feelings. True, this does not mean that the Yorkies will show their affection only to one person, they will just treat their master with a special devotion, because Yorkies prefer communication with one person rather than with a crowd of little-known people.
Conditions of Maintenance and Care
Yorkshire Terrier coats quickly become entangled, so you need to brush them daily. Many dog owners of this breed trim their pets in order to facilitate grooming. This approach is acceptable, but it is better to carry out a haircut from a professional, then the appearance of your pet will not suffer.
Examine your dog’s ears carefully daily. Keep them free from irritation, inflammation, and earwax. They must be cleaned regularly with a special mixture prescribed by a veterinarian. It is better not to use a cotton swab for such a procedure.
Brush your Yorkie’s teeth at least once a week. This will be sufficient prevention of calculus and gum disease. Small dogs are prone to dental problems, especially in old age, so the importance of caring for the teeth of the Yorkshire Terrier can hardly be overestimated.
The dog’s claws also require attention. They need to be trimmed once a month, perhaps once a month and a half (everything will depend on the growth of the claws).
Yorkshire Terriers are very alert and curious. They always want to know everything and try to figure out how to get what they want. Nature has endowed these dogs with high intelligence, and therefore they are easy to train. Although Yorkies are easy to train, it should be noted that motivation plays an important role in the learning process. If the dog understands that it will be rewarded for doing what is required, then the learning process will be even more effective. That is why everyone should find their own individual approach to teaching a pet.
Yorkshire Terriers are quite trainable. Yorkies are terriers, which means, like all terriers, they have such a quality as stubbornness. Therefore, it is necessary to start the learning process from an early age with the use of praise and affection in the training process, not forgetting to give the pet treats for each success. It is best that the classes do not take much time, the shorter they are, the more likely the dog will not get bored with this process. If you decide to train your dog at home, then you must remember that training should be based on the principle “from simple to difficult.” Do not try to teach your dog some difficult commands right away. If you are not ready for self-study, or maybe you simply do not have enough knowledge or patience, then it is better to contact a specialist. He will help you train your pet and give you great advice on how to improve his skills.
It is quite common for small dogs to have major health problems. The Yorkshire Terrier is no exception in this regard. Yorkies usually live long and happy lives, but sometimes problems arise, the most common of which are: the weakening of the trachea, dental disease, hypothyroidism, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), bladder stones, hair loss, cataracts.
Yorkshire Terriers are prone to liver disease, the most common being a portosystemic shunt. When diagnosing this ailment, the pet will need expensive surgical intervention.
Often there are problems with the musculoskeletal system. The problem of patella prolapse is considered a common problem. Therefore, ask your veterinarian to regularly check your pet’s paws for this problem, especially if you notice that the dog has started to limp or jump when walking.
Get your teeth checked regularly. Leaving alone may not be enough. The thing is that Yorkshire Terriers can develop abnormal teeth development. Only a specialist can control this process.
Yorkies can also suffer from another ailment associated with decreased blood flow to the head and hind limbs, which leads to the degradation of their function. The symptoms of this disease, as a rule, manifest themselves in a long, seemingly unreasonable, chromate. The disease can be treated with surgery, so the sooner it is diagnosed, the more likely your dog is to recover.
Despite its small size, unfortunately, Yorkshire Terriers quite often fall prey to the most unpredictable ailments, but this should not be a reason to refuse to buy this wonderful dog.
- In 1984, in Germany, by crossing titled Yorkshire Terriers with a good pedigree, puppies with coat color, atypical for Yorkies, were born – white. Taking into account the mandatory standards, they could not be recognized, but due to their extraordinary attractiveness, they began to be bred more and more so that this color was included in the breed standard.
- The Yorkshire Terrier is extremely curious, so quite often he finds himself in funny situations.
- Yorkie is a great dog for an apartment.
- Yorkie has a stunning ash-bluish shade of coat and tan, but he is not born with such a coat. The color scheme of the dog changes with the growing up of the animal.
- Despite their modest size, Yorkies love an active lifestyle: running, jumping, even participating in various sports competitions.
- Yorkshire Terriers don’t like the cold. They are prone to colds. Wet and damp rooms are detrimental to this breed.
- Despite its small size and pleasant appearance, the Yorkshire Terrier is not recommended to be kept in families with small children.
- Some dogs of this breed can be irritable and bark at every rustle. Early socialization and training will help you avoid all the trouble. If you feel that you cannot cope on your own, contact a professional trainer (dog handler).
- The digestive system of Yorkshire Terriers is very finicky, so dogs are picky about food. Animals often have problems with their teeth and gums. If you notice that the Yorkie is showing anxiety or discomfort, take it to your vet right away.
- Yorkshire Terriers do not estimate their actual size. Often they consider themselves large dogs, so they start a fight with fellows that are much larger than them. Control your dog, otherwise, the pet may become a victim of his opponent!
- The teeth of the Yorkshire Terrier are preserved, as a rule, from infancy to old age. Be sure to check your dog’s teeth at five months of age. Often milk teeth are not preserved and deteriorate due to caries.
- To own a healthy dog, don’t buy puppies from random dog breeders or pet stores. Look for a reputable breeder. Make sure his puppies are really healthy and full of energy.