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Origin and breed history

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The Affenpinscher is one of the oldest dog breeds, although the exact origin has not yet been fully clarified. The fact is that the pinscher, which has probably been around for thousands of years, is involved in the origin of the breed. Some experts even see similarities in the skull of a pinscher with the peat-sweeping dog, which, according to archaeological finds, populated all of Europe as early as the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.

The painting “The Arnolfini Wedding” by Jan van Eyck provides definite proof of the existence of the Affenpinscher. The painting, which dates from 1434, shows a small dog that bears a striking resemblance to the Affenpinschers known today. However, the Flemish artist was not the only one to immortalize the breed in his works. Albrecht Dürer, who lived from 1471 to 1528, also dedicated several woodcuts to the breed. The family of the popular Empress Elisabeth of Austria is also said to have owned Affenpinschers. Numerous legends surround the breed. The well-known German cynologist Josef Berta related that on a cold winter night in 1824 a rich lady from Hamburg allegedly gave away a pair of Affenpinschers to a couple who collected the toll. The animals were extremely valuable at that time, as you paid one thaler for two bitches or one male.

In times when there were no cars, Affenpinschers were very popular as companions for carriages. They proved to be extremely versatile: despite their relatively short legs, they were able to walk alongside the carriage for long stretches, and at night they looked after their owner’s belongings. How popular the Affenpinscher was is shown by the fact that the breed was mentioned in the well-regarded reference book “Brehms Tierleben”, which appeared at the end of the 19th century. In it he described him as an entertaining and lively dog who is always devoted to his people. It would take almost until the turn of the century for the animals to be recognized as a separate breed. Until 1896 they were kept together with Miniature Pinschers. Only after the foundation of the German Pinscher Schnauzer Club was a separate breed standard defined.

Nature & Temperament of the Affenpinscher

The Affenpinscher is a lively animal that loves variety. With his exuberant temperament, he needs a lot of variety. Despite being a relatively small breed, the Affenpinscher is surprisingly resilient. He likes to prove his condition on long walks. Since he has a pronounced play instinct, he gets along well with children. When the Affenpinscher is naturally busy, he also loves to cuddle with his family.

Although he is very affectionate towards his people, there are two personalities in the little dog. The self-confident animal wants to protect its pack at all costs and acts as the guardian of the family. When he shows this side to strangers, he can seem a bit short-tempered. No wonder the French call him “Diabletin Mustache” (in English: little devil with whiskers). As long as everything goes according to the head of the little four-legged friend, he is extremely cooperative. If something goes against the grain, a bad mood spreads. Then the four-legged friend switches to stubborn until his owner distracts him with a game or a caress. Since the Affenpinscher is not resentful, his sunny disposition quickly shows itself again.

What is the temperament of an Affenpinscher?

Despite its small size, the Affenpinscher is a real bundle of temperaments. He needs a lot of exercises and wants to be challenged both physically and mentally. When dealing with his family, he proves to be affectionate and cuddly, he also gets along well with children. However, he often shows his qualities as a guard dog to strangers. Only after a while does he gain confidence.

The appearance of the Affenpinscher

The face of the breed is characterized by a well-defined and high-domed forehead. The stop should be spherical rather than straight. The animal has its V-shaped ears turned forward. According to the breed standard, small, pricked ears are desired.

The Affenpinscher looks at its owner with an innocent look, this effect is reinforced by the black, round lids. The straight, short bridge of the nose is also characteristic. Although the animals have an upturned lower jaw and an underbite, the teeth should not be visible when the mouth is closed. As the name suggests, the animal is reminiscent of a monkey. He looks cute with his bristly eyebrows and whiskers. The head is followed by a short neck and a slightly sloping back. It ends in the curved rod in the shape of a sickle or saber.

Height and weight:

  • the Affenpinscher is between 25 and 30 centimeters high;
  • it reaches a weight between 4 and 6 kilograms.

The breed standard of the FCI exclusively provides for black as the coat color. Because of its rough coat, it is sometimes mistaken for a Griffon. Under the shaggy fur is a dense undercoat. The coat of fur is about an inch long, being longer at the head and shoulders. One of the breed’s advantages is that it sheds little.

Upbringing and keeping the Affenpinscher – this is important to keep in mind

Since the Affenpinscher is easy to train in principle, it is also suitable for beginners. Just don’t make the mistake of underestimating your little four-legged friend. He must be raised like a great breed. Precisely because of his exuberant temperament, he needs clear boundaries. If he is raised consistently, he is an uncomplicated companion. Since he is very affectionate, he likes to follow his owners as long as he accepts them as the pack leader. Clear rules are particularly important when the Affenpinscher switches to stubborn behavior. The little four-legged friend immediately exploits insecurities.

Well-behaved animals turn out to be reliable and unobtrusive companions. Since they fit into small transport boxes due to their small size and low weight, you can take them with you in the passenger compartment of the aircraft. There are no problems with train journeys either. The small box takes up very little space in the car. Dogs that are busy according to their temperament like to accompany their owners to the office or to the restaurant and behave inconspicuously.

Diet of the Affenpinscher

Since the Affenpinscher is not prone to allergies or food intolerances, it does not need any special food. He eats both dry and wet food and is also happy about home-cooked food. It is important to adapt the amount of food to the activity level, age, and weight of the animal.

Health – life expectancy & common diseases

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Since the Affenpinscher has changed little over the centuries and never became an over-bred fashion dog, the breed generally enjoys good health. The average life expectancy of the animals is 15 years. Since its snout was not deliberately bred small like the pug, for example, the Affenpinscher does not suffer from respiratory problems. If the feed is appropriate for its activity level and low weight, the breed does not tend to become overweight. Since the dense undercoat protects against both heat and cold, the Affenpinscher is less sensitive to the effects of the weather.

How old do Affenpinschers get?

Affenpinschers live to be around 15 years old.

Affenpinscher care

If you decide to get an Affenpinscher, you should plan some time for grooming. Although it is not particularly complex, the animal still has to be brushed regularly. When going for walks in nature, it is worth checking your four-legged friend after returning home, as small twigs and leaves can get caught in the dense coat of fur. It is best to get him used to a comb and brush when he is a puppy. Then the care ritual later takes place in a relaxed manner. It is important that the dog associates brushing with something pleasant. It should not be done quickly in between, but above all in the habituation phase in connection with extensive stroking. To tame the rough and curly coat, the Affenpinscher should be trimmed twice a year. The care ritual also includes the ongoing control of the paws. If the claws do not wear out regularly, they must be trimmed after a few weeks.

Affenpinscher – activities, and training

In general, the breed adapts to the lifestyle of its owners. She feels at home in both the city and the country, provided she gets enough exercise. The Affenpinscher is by no means suitable for couch potatoes who prefer to spend their evenings in front of the television. The lively animal appreciates long walks and hikes in nature and likes to let off steam with other animals. He likes to live out his urge to move in dog sports: Dog dancing is just one of the activities he enjoys. With his clever mind, he also learns tricks in no time at all.

Good to know: special features of the Affenpinscher

The Affenpinscher is a very rare breed of dog, only 20 to 30 puppies are born each year. In addition, there are usually only two to three puppies in the litters. If you are interested in an Affenpinscher, you may have to expect a long wait. Information is available from the Pinscher-Schnauzer-Klub 1895. Sometimes you have to put up with long journeys to see a puppy from a breeder. Due to the low supply, patience is required during the search. Nevertheless, one should not rashly decide on an animal. Reputable breeders present the papers of the parents, which, like those of the puppies, bear the FCI logo. Before moving to their new home, the animals are vaccinated and chipped.

The tripple gait of the four-legged friend, which is caused by the special position of the legs, is also very characteristic. The facial expression of the animals is unmistakable: they almost seem a little grumpy. A resemblance to South American species of monkeys can be seen in the face.

Cons of the Affenpinscher

One of the disadvantages of the breed is that it is very rare. With his friendly and open-minded nature, he casts a spell over his family. However, there are two faces slumbering in the little animal. If something goes against the grain, it shows his displeasure about it very clearly. Therefore, it is not necessarily suitable for families with small children who may irritate the animal with uncontrolled movements.

Reluctance towards strangers can also prove disadvantageous. If someone approaches the home, he will report reliably. The animal takes its role as a guard dog very seriously. Sometimes it may take some time before they accept the visit and calm down. The Affenpinscher also demonstrates considerable self-confidence towards unfamiliar dogs. Early socialization is especially important with this breed. This breed of dog should already have contact with other dogs when they are puppies, so that the four-legged friend can later correctly assess situations.

There can also be problems with the Affenpinscher when dealing with small children. They don’t want to be treated like toys. If a child hugs the four-legged friend too tightly, it may react by snapping or growling.

Is the Affenpinscher right for me?

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Just like with any other dog, buying an Affenpinscher should be well thought out. After all, the animals are relatively old at 15 years. The Affenpinscher places few demands on its husbandry. He also gets along well in a small apartment in the city. Nevertheless, it is absolutely unsuitable for couch potatoes. If you want to have a balanced dog by your side, make sure you have enough exercise.

The Affenpinscher likes to move and is therefore suitable for active families. He is at his best in dog sports such as agility or dog dance as well as on hikes in nature. With his curious nature, he loves challenges. You can take the breed with you on vacation without any worries if the hierarchy has been clarified in the upbringing. Inconsistency immediately punishes the animal with undesirable behavior. As cute as the Affenpinscher is as a pup, you have to follow a consistent lineage from the start. Clear rules give the four-legged friend orientation and enable a harmonious coexistence. Those interested in the breed should also keep in mind that they require regular grooming. The rough coat needs to be brushed at least two to three times a week and trimmed twice a year.

The breed suits active people who enjoy spending their free time in nature. If children are prepared to deal with a small and light animal, it is also a tireless play partner. As the breed portrait shows, the four-legged friend is suitable for people who like to deal with animal and like to be in nature. With the help of professionals from a dog school, the Affenpinscher can also be easily trained by beginners.


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As the smallest dog in the world, the Chihuahua deserves the loudest “Hurrah!” Huge is its courage, its eternal loyalty, and the “hardest” its cleverness, as it has the largest brain of all pedigree dogs. The Chihuahua belongs to the FCI Group 9 of Companion and Companion Dogs, Section 6, and as such is now popular all over the world. He is Mexican and a small dog in which a lot of great things are still slumbering.

Origin and breed history

The “Chi”, as the Chihuahua is affectionately called, most likely comes from Mexico. In any case, it has been bred there by the Mexicans since the 19th century in order to sell it to foreigners as a “souvenir”. After all, it was the Americans who established the breed status and made the little companions well-known.

His history is not certain. Some claim that he is descended from the Aztec dogs, others deny this “lordly” ancestral line. Other versions also see him as a native of Malta or as one of the first Chinese “sacred” quadrupeds. There are a number of legends about the little Chihuahua, and cruel rituals in the form of sacrificial rites in early advanced cultures make lovers of the breed shudder. Secret ceremonies where the little dog was the victim.

In the course of history, the intelligent four-legged friends have functioned as circus artists, as handbag companions or as lively figureheads for celebrities who still needed “something” in their arms in front of the camera. Everywhere in the world they are loved and pampered, cared for and mourned in everyday life.

Nature and Temperament of the Chihuahua

Bold, intelligent and confident, the Chihuahua is an explosive mix for a small dog and the smallest in existence at that. Rules have to be laid down explicitly and obedience has to be painstakingly trained. It is advisable to start consistent training as early as possible. Dog owners shouldn’t lose themselves in the sweet face that this breed of dog exhibits, especially as a puppy. Consistency is always required, otherwise the dog will exploit it mercilessly.

In return, the Chihuahua will do anything for its human if the human is attached to it. The Chi wants to be present everywhere and to be the center of attention. His upbringing requires consistency and empathy, the little Mexican withdraws his affection from his loved one just as quickly as he gave it to him before. Not forever, but he starts a game with his caregiver. The Chihuahua must give the Chihuahua a clear, unmistakable direction right from the start.

Is the Chihuahua a family dog?

Conditionally yes. He needs a single caregiver in the family and he is not really a children’s dog. The children have to know exactly how to handle the little dwarf.

The appearance of the Chihuahua

There are two different types of fur in this dog breed, short and long fur. The physical constitution does not differentiate between long-haired and short-haired variants. The Chi weighs between 1.5 and 3 kilograms with an average height of 20 centimeters. All dogs that are smaller and weigh less than 1.5 kilograms count as torture breeding. This means that external characteristics are bred that cause the dog health damage. The smallest dog doesn’t have to be made any smaller either, he’s a fan favorite anyway.

Anyone who has ever had or has a Chihuahua often finds other dogs boring. Life with the little dwarf is an experience every day. Clever ideas, but also nonsense, mature in Chi’s head, which is shaped like an apple and hangs by two large, erect ears. He confidently carries his tail over his back and “fashion” is what pleases. The coat can be brown and white, black and white, red and white, or tricolor, all colors are allowed by the breed standard. Protruding, dark round eyes complete the overall picture.

Upbringing and keeping the Chihuahua – this is important to note

The Chihuahua is a loyal friend for life, but not exactly a novice dog. The dog breed is clever and tricky to impose its own ideas. He likes to bark and also uses the “instrument” to get his way. The Chi loves walks and convinces with great endurance.

Even there, he never lets his loved one out of his sight, even if he moves effortlessly in a pack among his own kind. As small as the Chihuahua may be, his personality traits make him a big dog. He courageously defends his family and indicates early on when danger is imminent. As an apartment dog, the owner will have to intervene to regulate. The more the dog owner lets the little one get away with it, the more difficult it becomes to live with the Chihuahua, who then makes the rules.

If there are children in the family, they have to learn to leave the little Mexican alone again and again. The Chihuahua is not automatically a child’s dog, it simply does not have enough patience with the two-legged friends. The Chihuahua behaves reservedly towards cats and animals of a different species, sometimes even showing a little jealousy. If the Chi is confronted with other species from the beginning, there are usually no problems.

Since this breed of dog lives without an undercoat, it is not well enough protected against cold and wet to stay outside. He wouldn’t survive life in a kennel in the backyard, too far away from his loved one and far too lonely.

Can you leave a Chihuahua at home alone?

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Yes, but that shouldn’t be too long. The Chihuahua is not a dog that doesn’t mind being alone.

Diet of the Chihuahua

The Chihuahua is a carnivore and should be fed a good quality dog food. Even if he gives reason to reward him with unhealthy treats due to his playful appearance, his organism is grateful for a healthy meat meal. For additional dental care, the owner can feed chews made from natural ingredients that help with cleaning teeth.

The amount of food depends, of course, on the size and physical fitness of the Chihuahua, and it does not differ in any way from the food for dogs of other breeds. The two to three kilogram dogs are quite robust little dwarfs, which are not known to be particularly sensitive to food.

Health – life expectancy & common diseases

Chis that have been responsibly bred, are at least 20 centimeters tall and weigh no less than one and a half kilograms are usually robust and healthy. They only occasionally suffer from the usual “small dog diseases” such as the kneecap jumping out or cataracts. Some breeds of Chis are also said to be prone to diabetes and heart disease. The owner should check his little friend’s eyes and teeth regularly. In winter he buys the four-legged friend a dog coat so that the “dwarf” does not freeze outside when the temperatures are below zero. In summer he makes sure that the walk is not too strenuous at 30°C. In general, however, the Chihuahua can handle changing conditions quite well if it is a Chi with breed-typical traits.

However, mini Chihuahuas or teacup Chihuahuas are also forced into life by unscrupulous “breeders”. Such a puppy can be born with 60 to 80 grams. These little animals have a lot of health problems and don’t have a great life expectancy, which can be as much as 18 years for a traditional Chi. However, not all minis come from torture breeding. If a bitch of normal weight has given birth to a large litter, there may be one or two very small Chis among them.

Are Chihuahuas Prone to Disease?

No more and no less than other small dog breeds. The mini Chihuahuas (torture breeds) alone are very susceptible to all diseases that are caused by the unnatural proportions and their harmful effects on health.

Care of the Chihuahua

The short-haired variant is extremely easy to care for. It is enough for her if the owner runs a soft brush along the body from time to time and pulls out loose hair. The care of the long-haired variant is somewhat more complex, but only at the time of the change of coat. Here, too, the dog owner can work with a soft brush or with a comb.

Eyes, ears and teeth should be checked regularly. The eyes tend to tear sometimes. In this context, the dog owner should make sure that no foreign body has got into the eye. The Chi should only be bathed very rarely. Skin and coat can be brushed clean so skin doesn’t get irritated with shampoos.

The Chihuahua – Activities, and Training

The Chihuahua enjoys forest walks, dog sports such as agility and dog dancing, search, fetch, and intelligence games. In short: In all activities that require physical and mental fitness and skill. Less suitable for the high-spirited companion dog are bicycle tours, which they have to accompany, and mountain hikes. The Chi is happy to be persuaded to do any fun that connects him with his favorite person.

Targeted training with a dog professional is recommended if one or the other bad habit has crept in. The Chihuahua is a dog that never had to work and therefore had a lot of time to develop its idiosyncratic character. Opponents of this breed often accuse dogs of being bitchy and egocentric. Lovers turn up their noses at these arguments.

Good to know: Peculiarities of the Chihuahua

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If dog owners shared life with a famous diva, it would be the same. The Chihuahua demands full attention, is jealous and sometimes a bit arrogant. He has to go to school, otherwise the apartment or house will soon be his and he is ready to give his loved ones a little lesson.

The Chihuahua is small, but still needs plenty of exercise and variety. It is not necessarily suitable for a beginner, as training is usually difficult for the reasons mentioned. All animals other than his own breed are mediocre welcome. With the right training, however, there will be a good outcome for all parties.

This dog breed is well known from film and television. Hotel heiress Paris Hilten, for example, took her Chihuahua Tinkerbell with her to all the red carpets in the world. She saw the dog accessory and adorned herself with it. Other celebs who own or have owned a dog of this breed include:

  • Britney Spears
  • Demi Moore
  • Sandra Bullock
  • Scarlett Johansson
  • Ashton Kutcher
  • Reese Witherspoon
  • Madonna
  • Marilyn Monroe

Another well-known Chihuahua is the male Brutus from the movie Legally Blonde. The second part in particular is mainly about him, since his owner wants to find the dog’s mother.

Of course, real connoisseurs immediately think of the song “Chihuahua” by DJ Bobo, which stormed the charts in 2002 and 2003.

How old do Chihuahuas get?

Dogs of this breed can live to be very old, up to 20 years old. No other small dog breed can boast of having representatives that live as long.

Cons of the Chihuahua

When a small dog thinks it’s a big one, that doesn’t always endear it to really big dogs. For this reason, some improvements are needed here with regard to the social behavior towards conspecifics through educational measures on the part of the dog owner, which, however, are not always fruitful if they are only implemented half-heartedly. As an owner, it is important to always stay on the ball.

Another characteristic of Little Chi that can be interpreted as a disadvantage is his jealousy when the dog owner interacts with other living beings in the dog’s presence. Consistent training is also required here.

If you own a Chihuahua from a torture breed, you also have to reckon with a lot of time and money. Because then, for example, visits to the vet are usually very regular.

Is the Chihuahua right for me?

If you want to buy a Chihuahua, you should ask yourself the following questions:

Do I really have enough time for the little Mexican?
do i have enough money The Chi needs insurance and has to be registered, the regular deworming and vaccinations have to be paid for, in an emergency it should not fail with a life-saving operation. Feed and equipment are part of the daily expenses. Chihuahuas from torture breeding in particular can cause high veterinary costs.
Am I willing to seek help if I have problems?
Can I take the Chihuahua’s urge to move into account and are there people in my immediate vicinity who may be able to help me?
Do I settle for a confident little house bully?
How will the children react and the partner?

Of course, when buying a dog, heart and mind must decide. If it’s just the mind, it probably won’t be the Chihuahua. Not because he’s not a good dog, but there are a number of other dogs that are easier to handle. But the Chi opens your heart and you will see that your arguments against him are “all of a sudden” in line with your heart.

Italian Greyhound

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The Italian greyhound is basically the miniature version of the large greyhound. The dog, which comes from Italy, is also known under the names “Piccolo Levriero Italiano” or “Galgo Italiano”, as well as under the affectionate nicknames “IG or Iggy”.

This breed of dog is the ideal dog for allergy sufferers, as it sheds little or no hair at all. As small as he is, he still needs a lot of attention and care. Since it is very sensitive in many ways, it requires special care. For example, Italian greyhounds are extremely sensitive to cold and susceptible to various diseases.

History and origin of the Italian greyhound

These little greyhounds already existed thousands of years ago. Images from Ancient Egypt show that ancestors of this breed existed more than 6000 years ago. It is believed that seafarers brought the animals from Egypt to Italy from the 5th century BC.

In Rome, the small four-legged friends quickly became the favorite dogs of the patrician women. In the 14th century, this breed gradually spread across Europe, especially in countries with a warm climate.

They were primarily at home there at the various courts. Frederick II, King of Prussia, is said to have owned 40 of these greyhounds. Queen Anne, Queen Victoria and Catherine the Great, who ruled Russia for more than half a century, were also enthusiastic about the delicate four-legged friends.

The Italian Greyhound was best known during the Renaissance. Numerous artists immortalized him in their works. During the 17th and 18th centuries, trips to Italy were a popular trend and a small greyhound was brought home as a souvenir.

The appearance of the Italian Greyhound

The Italian Greyhound is a dog breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and bears the standard number 200. These dogs belong to the group of sighthounds – Group 10 – as well as to Section 3 – Shorthaired sighthounds. The country of origin is Italy.

The breed standard specifies a height at the withers of 32 to 38 centimeters. The weight must not exceed 5 kilograms. This makes him one of the small dogs. Greyhounds reach an age of 12 to 15 years.

The delicate dogs have a short, close-fitting, fine and silky coat that hardly sheds. They come in different shades of grey, black and isabella, which means a light yellow-beige hue. Only single-colored dogs are allowed, but white markings on paws and chest are tolerated by the FCI. The US and UK breed clubs also allow bi-colored dogs. The body is long and stretched, and the head has a narrow and elongated shape.

The legs, which appear almost fragile, are very long and filigree, as is the upwardly curved tail. The dog wears its triangular ears folded forward. Dark, almond-shaped eyes look awake and alert at the world and give the dog a graceful and noble expression.

Nature, character, and training of the Italian greyhound

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The small, spirited Italian greyhounds are elegant, charming, extremely affectionate, reserved, cuddly, very intelligent, and fast dogs with a great urge to move. They make excellent companion and companion dogs. The little four-legged friends always want to be there, which is usually possible due to their size.

The exceptionally cuddly dog does not tolerate being alone at all. He loves constant contact with “his” people more than anything. So that he never feels left alone, it is an advantage if you keep him with another dog – preferably of the same breed.

Italian greyhounds are small and “cute”, exude a very special charm, and awaken protective instincts. People tend to forget that this dog also needs consistent – but loving – upbringing.

Since the little dog is very intelligent, he naturally knows how to quickly exploit deficits in training. The fact that Italian greyhounds tend to overestimate themselves quickly becomes apparent.

Anyone who lets the delicate greyhound live in the family should ensure that children are particularly careful with him when playing, as he is often prone to injury.

Exercise, care, and keeping of the Italian greyhound

Even though he may seem like a lap dog, he is a greyhound and therefore needs appropriate exercise. Long, extensive walks are necessary. The chance to occasionally prove himself in a short sprint makes him happy all around. Like his big brother, he also has a strong hunting instinct. If he wakes up and chases after a fleeing animal, the small, agile greyhound usually does not come back immediately on command.

Unfortunately, he is very sensitive to cold because of his thin fur and hardly any fat layer, he does not like snow, cold, or rain and freezes very quickly. This means that he should definitely wear a coat in winter when the weather is frosty. Summer temperatures, on the other hand, increase their well-being.

Greyhounds are prone to some diseases such as epilepsy, undescended testicles or patella luxation, which causes the kneecap to shift. Of course, the tail and the thin legs can break more easily than with dogs that have a heavier build. The teeth are the main weak point, so intensive daily dental care is important.

Even the smallest brother of the big greyhound can suffer from the so-called greyhound lockdown when physically overexerted. The muscles become acidic and cramps can occur. One symptom of this is dark, brownish urine. Like other sighthounds, the small greyhound is more sensitive to anesthetics or anesthetics based on barbiturates.

Since he hardly sheds any hair at all, he is an ideal dog for allergy sufferers. The short coat does not require any special care. Regular brushing can easily be incorporated into daily stroking. It is also important that the little four-legged friend gets a special collar, as it can slip out of the standard collars far too quickly due to its extremely narrow head.